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CEC Performance-Based Standards

The National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) recently approved CEC performance-based standards for the preparation and licensure of special educators. The new CEC standards are divided into three parts: Field Experiences and Clinical Practice Standards (Special education candidates progress through a series of developmentally sequenced field experiences for the full range of ages, types and levels of abilities, and collaborative opportunities that are appropriate to the license or roles for which they are preparing. These field and clinical experiences are supervised by qualified professionals.), Assessment System Standards, and Special Education Content Standards.

How are the 2001 Performance Based standards different from the 1996 Knowledge & Skill standards?

Will the review procedures be different?

What guidance does CEC provide to help us prepare a program report (folio)?

For the most current information contact the NCATE Website at www.ncate.org

When does CEC expect programs to have a fully implemented assessment system and aggregate data?

What options does CEC provide for different state licensure frameworks (e.g. multi categorical frameworks)?


How are the new standards different from the current standards?

The 2001 CEC standards are divided into three parts: Field Experiences and Clinical Practice Stands, Assessment System Standards, and Special Education Content Standards.

In the past, CEC had 15 practicum standards. The new Field Experiences and Clinical Practice Standards are much briefer, focus on the kinds of experiences provided, and no longer have a requirement for a specific number of hours or weeks.

The Assessment System Standards provide guidance to programs on the key components of their assessment systems.

The CEC Special Education Content Standards are made up of ten narrative standards. The Content standards have been reorganized from eight domain areas into ten domain areas. These domain areas parallel those of the ten Interstate New Teacher and Assessment Consortium (INTASC) principles. The narrative Content Standards were written to reflect the content of the validated knowledge and skills. Program reviews will be done at the Content Standard level, not at the knowledge and skill level.

Although reviews will be done at the Content Standard level, it will be critical for faculty to use the knowledge and skill items in the Common Core and the appropriate Area of Specialization to inform their curriculum development and to develop assessments. this will be necessary to ensure that the program's evaluation system comprehensively addresses each of the ten standards.

All of the knowledge and skills in the Common Core and the Areas of Specialization have been edited to eliminate redundancy and to increase the precision of the precision of the language. In addition, several new items have been validated and added.

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Will the review procedures be different?

The 2001 standards and review procedures reflect a major change in the approval process. In the past, programs provided evidence (primarily by syllabi) that the standards were taught. Under the new system, programs must provide evidence that the standards are assessed and that their candidates perform appropriately on those assessments. Therefore, program faculty should develop a comprehensive assessment system that addresses each of the ten Content Standards and collect and aggregate candidate performance on those assessments.

In the past, the primary forms of documentation for the program reports were syllabi. These syllabi demonstrated that the standards were taught. Under the new system, syllabi are not required. Instead, the program report will contain documentation about the program's assessment system and report candidate data.

Please note that CEC will not expect to see assessments for each of the Knowledge and Skill items. The assessments must address the ten Content Standards, not each of the Knowledge and Skills. These standards are the same for all programs. However, it is expected that faculty will use the knowledge and skill items in the Common Core and the appropriate Area of Specialization to inform their curriculum development to ensure that the standards are met. The comprehensively addresses each of the ten standards

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When does CEC expect programs to have a fully implemented assessment system and aggregate data?

NCATE has established a timeline for transition to the new performance-based accreditation procedures. This is intended to provide a four-year period allowing institutions to plan, develop, pilot, and fully implement assessment systems that generate candidate proficiency information. CEC is developing its own capability to use candidate proficiency information in program review decisions, and it assumes that institutions will provide such information according to the following NCATE schedule or sooner:

  • academic year 2001-2002—plan, currently available data
  • academic year 2002-2003—plan, pilot data, currently available data
  • academic year 2003-2004—plan, more pilot data, currently available data
  • academic year 2004-2005—institutions are to have fully functioning assessment systems that produce data on candidate proficiencies

Further details on the transition timeline are available at the NCATE web site, www.ncate.org.

By 2004-2005, all NCATE institutions are to have fully functioning assessment systems. By that year, CEC expects all special education programs to provide full candidate performance evidence to demonstrate that standards are met and that programs merit national recognition.

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What options does CEC provide for different state licensure frameworks (e.g. multi categorical frameworks)?

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How to Use the Content Standards

The CEC Special Education Content Standards are made up of ten narrative standards. These identical standards are used across all programs. Prior to moving to performance-based reviews, CEC historically used the knowledge and skills items to assure that each were taught. Typically, reviewers would check syllabi to verify where items were taught. Under the new performance-based review procedures, the knowledge and skill items will not be used in this way. Under the performance-based review procedures, it is expected that faculty will use the knowledge and skill base in the appropriate Area(s) of Specialization to inform their curriculum development to ensure that the Content standards are met. Please note that programs will not be expected to include a response to each of the knowledge and skills. Programs must respond to the ten Special Education Content Standards, not to each of the knowledge and skills. The program’s evaluation system should ensure that the program’s assessment system comprehensively addresses each of the ten standards.

Reflecting the diversity of programs in the field, CEC continues to provide options to preparation programs. CEC has disability specific knowledge and skill bases (e.g., Learning Disabilities, Emotionally and Behavioral Disorders, Visually Impaired), multicategorical knowledge and skill bases (Individualized General Curriculum and Individualized Independence Curriculum), and age-specific knowledge and skill bases (Early Childhood). These options provide programs the flexibility to select the set of standards that most closely aligns with their program.

Standard 1: Foundations

Special educators understand the field as an evolving and changing discipline based on philosophies, evidence-based principles and theories, relevant laws and policies, diverse and historical points of view, and human issues that have historically influenced and continue to influence the field of special education and the education and treatment of individuals with exceptional needs both in school and society. Special educators understand how these influence professional practice, including assessment, instructional planning, implementation, and program evaluation. Special educators understand how issues of human diversity can impact families, cultures, and schools, and how these complex human issues can interact with issues in the delivery of special education services. They understand the relationships of organizations of special education to the organizations and functions of schools, school systems, and other agencies. Special educators use this knowledge as a ground upon which to construct their own personal understandings and philosophies of special education.

Beginning special educators demonstrate their mastery of this standard through the mastery of the CEC Common Core Knowledge and Skills, as well as through the appropriate CEC Specialty Area(s) Knowledge and Skills for which the program is preparing candidates.

Standard 2: Development and Characteristics of Learners

Special educators know and demonstrate respect for their students first as unique human beings. Special educators understand the similarities and differences in human development and the characteristics between and among individuals with and without exceptional learning needs (ELN)1. Moreover, special educators understand how exceptional conditions can interact with the domains of human development and they use this knowledge to respond to the varying abilities and behaviors of individual’s with ELN. Special educators understand how the experiences of individuals with ELN can impact families, as well as the individual’s ability to learn, interact socially, and live as fulfilled contributing members of the community.

Beginning special educators demonstrate their mastery of this standard through the mastery of the CEC Common Core Knowledge and Skills, as well as through the appropriate CEC Specialty Area(s) Knowledge and Skills for which the preparation program is preparing candidates.

Standard 3: Individual Learning Differences

Special educators understand the effects that an exceptional condition2 can have on an individual’s learning in school and throughout life. Special educators understand that the beliefs, traditions, and values across and within cultures can affect relationships among and between students, their families, and the school community. Moreover, special educators are active and resourceful in seeking to understand how primary language, culture, and familial backgrounds interact with the individual’s exceptional condition to impact the individual’s academic and social abilities, attitudes, values, interests, and career options. The understanding of these learning differences and their possible interactions provide the foundation upon which special educators individualize instruction to provide meaningful and challenging learning for individuals with ELN.

Beginning special educators demonstrate their mastery of this standard through the mastery of the CEC Common Core Knowledge and Skills, as well as through the appropriate CEC Specialty Area(s) Knowledge and Skills for which the program is preparing candidates.

Standard 4: Instructional Strategies

Special educators posses a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to individualize instruction for individuals with ELN. Special educators select, adapt, and use these instructional strategies to promote challenging learning results in general and special curricula3 and to appropriately modify learning environments for individuals with ELN. They enhance the learning of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills of individuals with ELN, and increase their self-awareness, self-management, self-control, self-reliance, and self-esteem. Moreover, special educators emphasize the development, maintenance, and generalization of knowledge and skills across environments, settings, and the lifespan.

Beginning special educators demonstrate their mastery this standard through the mastery of the CEC Common Core Knowledge and Skills, as well as through the appropriate CEC Specialty Area(s) Knowledge and Skills for which the program is preparing candidates.

Standard 5: Learning Environments and Social Interactions

Special educators actively create learning environments for individuals with ELN that foster cultural understanding, safety and emotional well being, positive social interactions, and active engagement of individuals with ELN. In addition, special educators foster environments in which diversity is valued and individuals are taught to live harmoniously and productively in a culturally diverse world. Special educators shape environments to encourage the independence, self-motivation, self-direction, personal empowerment, and self-advocacy of individuals with ELN. Special educators help their general education colleagues integrate individuals with ELN in regular environments and engage them in meaningful learning activities and interactions. Special educators use direct motivational and instructional interventions with individuals with ELN to teach them to respond effectively to current expectations. When necessary, special educators can safely intervene with individuals with ELN in crisis. Special educators coordinate all these efforts and provide guidance and direction to paraeducators and others, such as classroom volunteers and tutors.

Beginning special educators demonstrate their mastery of this standard through the mastery of the CEC Common Core Knowledge and Skills, as well as through the appropriate CEC Specialty Area(s) Knowledge and Skills for which the preparation program is preparing candidates.

Standard 6: Language

Special educators understand typical and atypical language development and the ways in which exceptional conditions can interact with an individual’s experience with and use of language. Special educators use individualized strategies to enhance language development and teach communication skills to individuals with ELN. Special educators are familiar with augmentative, alternative, and assistive technologies to support and enhance communication of individuals with exceptional needs. Special educators match their communication methods to an individual’s language proficiency and cultural and linguistic differences. Special educators provide effective language models, and they use communication strategies and resources to facilitate understanding of subject matter for individuals with ELN whose primary language is not English.

Beginning special educators demonstrate their mastery of language for and with individuals with ELN through the mastery of the CEC Common Core Knowledge and Skills, as well as through the appropriate CEC Specialty Area(s) Knowledge and Skills for which the preparation program is preparing candidates.

Standard 7: Instructional Planning

Individualized decision-making and instruction is at the center of special education practice. Special educators develop long-range individualized instructional plans anchored in both general and special curricula. In addition, special educators systematically translate these individualized plans into carefully selected shorter-range goals and objectives taking into consideration an individual’s abilities and needs, the learning environment, and a myriad of cultural and linguistic factors. Individualized instructional plans emphasize explicit modeling and efficient guided practice to assure acquisition and fluency through maintenance and generalization. Understanding of these factors as well as the implications of an individual’s exceptional condition, guides the special educator’s selection, adaptation, and creation of materials, and the use of powerful instructional variables. Instructional plans are modified based on ongoing analysis of the individual’s learning progress. Moreover, special educators facilitate this instructional planning in a collaborative context including the individuals with exceptionalities, families, professional colleagues, and personnel from other agencies as appropriate. Special educators also develop a variety of individualized transition plans, such as transitions from preschool to elementary school and from secondary settings to a variety of postsecondary work and learning contexts. Special educators are comfortable using appropriate technologies to support instructional planning and individualized instruction.

Beginning special educators demonstrate their mastery of this standard through the mastery of the CEC Common Core Knowledge and Skills, as well as through the appropriate CEC Specialty Area(s) Knowledge and Skills for which the preparation program is preparing candidates.

Standard 8: Assessment

Assessment is integral to the decision-making and teaching of special educators and special educators use multiple types of assessment information for a variety of educational decisions. Special educators use the results of assessments to help identify exceptional learning needs and to develop and implement individualized instructional programs, as well as to adjust instruction in response to ongoing learning progress. Special educators understand the legal policies and ethical principles of measurement and assessment related to referral, eligibility, program planning, instruction, and placement for individuals with ELN, including those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Special educators understand measurement theory and practices for addressing issues of validity, reliability, norms, bias, and interpretation of assessment results. In addition, special educators understand the appropriate use and limitations of various types of assessments. Special educators collaborate with families and other colleagues to assure non-biased, meaningful assessments and decision-making. Special educators conduct formal and informal assessments of behavior, learning, achievement, and environments to design learning experiences that support the growth and development of individuals with ELN. Special educators use assessment information to identify supports and adaptations required for individuals with ELN to access the general curriculum and to participate in school, system, and statewide assessment programs. Special educators regularly monitor the progress of individuals with ELN in general and special curricula. Special educators use appropriate technologies to support their assessments.

Beginning special educators demonstrate their mastery of this standard through the mastery of the CEC Common Core Knowledge and Skills, as well as through the appropriate CEC Specialty Area(s) Knowledge and Skills for which the preparation program is preparing candidates.

Standard 9: Professional and Ethical Practice

Special educators are guided by the profession’s ethical and professional practice standards. Special educators practice in multiple roles and complex situations across wide age and developmental ranges. Their practice requires ongoing attention to legal matters along with serious professional and ethical considerations. Special educators engage in professional activities and participate in learning communities that benefit individuals with ELN, their families, colleagues, and their own professional growth. Special educators view themselves as lifelong learners and regularly reflect on and adjust their practice. Special educators are aware of how their own and others attitudes, behaviors, and ways of communicating can influence their practice. Special educators understand that culture and language can interact with exceptionalities, and are sensitive to the many aspects of diversity of individuals with ELN and their families. Special educators actively plan and engage in activities that foster their professional growth and keep them current with evidence-based best practices. Special educators know their own limits of practice and practice within them.

Beginning special educators demonstrate their mastery of this standard through the mastery of the CEC Common Core Knowledge and Skills, as well as through the appropriate CEC Specialty Area(s) Knowledge and Skills for which the preparation program is preparing candidates.

Standard 10: Collaboration

Special educators routinely and effectively collaborate with families, other educators, related service providers, and personnel from community agencies in culturally responsive ways. This collaboration assures that the needs of individuals with ELN are addressed throughout schooling. Moreover, special educators embrace their special role as advocate for individuals with ELN. Special educators promote and advocate the learning and well being of individuals with ELN across a wide range of settings and a range of different learning experiences. Special educators are viewed as specialists by a myriad of people who actively seek their collaboration to effectively include and teach individuals with ELN. Special educators are a resource to their colleagues in understanding the laws and policies relevant to Individuals with ELN. Special educators use collaboration to facilitate the successful transitions of individuals with ELN across settings and services.

Beginning special educators demonstrate their mastery of this standard through the mastery of the CEC Common Core Knowledge and Skills, as well as through the appropriate CEC Specialty Area(s) Knowledge and Skills for which the preparation program is preparing candidates.


  1. "Individual with exceptional learning needs" is used throughout to include individuals with disabilities and individuals with exceptional gifts and talents.
  2. "Exceptional Condition" is used throughout to include both single and co-existing conditions. These may be two or more disabling conditions or exceptional gifts or talents coexisting with one or more disabling condition.
  3. "Special Curricula" is used throughout to denote curricular areas not routinely emphasized or addressed in general curricula, e.g., social, communication, motor, independence, self-advocacy.

 

Last Modified on Tue, Jun 8, 2004

 

 

 

 NBPTS Standards

Standards Overviews Below

Learn more about the standards.

Download the standards.

Early Childhood/Generalist, Second Edition

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards has organized the standards for accomplished Early Childhood/Generalist teachers into the following nine standards. The standards have been ordered to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They each describe an important facet of accomplished teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of accomplished practice. These standards serve as the basis for National Board Certification in this field.

I. Understanding Young Children: Accomplished early childhood teachers use their knowledge of child development and their relationships with children and families to understand children as individuals and to plan in response to their unique needs and potentials.

II. Equity, Fairness, and Diversity: Accomplished early childhood teachers model and teach behaviors appropriate in a diverse society by creating a safe, secure learning environment for all children; by showing appreciation of and respect for the individual differences and unique needs of each member of the learning community; and by empowering children to treat others with, and to expect from others, equity, fairness, and dignity.

III. Assessment: Accomplished early childhood teachers recognize the strengths and weaknesses of multiple assessment methodologies and know how to use them effectively. Employing a variety of methods, they systematically observe, monitor, and document children’s activities and behavior, analyzing, communicating, and using the information they glean to improve their work with children, parents, and others.

IV. Promoting Child Development and Learning: Accomplished early childhood teachers promote children’s cognitive, social, emotional, physical, and linguistic development by organizing and orchestrating the environment in ways that best facilitate the development and learning of young children.

V. Knowledge of Integrated Curriculum: On the basis of their knowledge of how young children learn, of academic subjects, and of assessment, accomplished early childhood teachers design and implement developmentally appropriate learning experiences that integrate within and across the disciplines.

VI. Multiple Teaching Strategies for Meaningful Learning: Accomplished early childhood teachers use a variety of practices and resources to promote individual development, meaningful learning, and social cooperation.
VII. Family and Community Partnerships: Accomplished early childhood teachers work with and through families and communities to support children’s learning and development.

VIII. Professional Partnerships: Accomplished early childhood teachers work as leaders and collaborators in the professional community to improve programs and practices for young children and their families.

IX. Reflective Practice: Accomplished early childhood teachers regularly analyze, evaluate, and synthesize to strengthen the quality and effectiveness of their work.

Middle Childhood/Generalist, Second Edition

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards has organized the standards for accomplished Middle Childhood/Generalist teachers into the following 11 standards. The standards have been ordered to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They each describe an important facet of accomplished teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of accomplished practice. These standards serve as the basis for National Board Certification in this field.

I. Knowledge of Students: Accomplished teachers draw on their knowledge of child development and their relationships with students to understand their students’ abilities, interests, aspirations, and values.

II. Knowledge of Content and Curriculum: Accomplished teachers draw on their knowledge of subject matter and curriculum to make sound decisions about what is important for students to learn within and across the subject areas of the middle childhood curriculum.

III. Learning Environment: Accomplished teachers establish a caring, inclusive, stimulating, and safe school community where students can take intellectual risks, practice democracy, and work collaboratively and independently.

IV. Respect for Diversity: Accomplished teachers help students learn to respect and appreciate individual and group differences.

V. Instructional Resources: Accomplished teachers create, assess, select, and adapt a rich and varied collection of materials and draw on other resources such as staff, community members, and students to support learning.

VI. Meaningful Applications of Knowledge: Accomplished teachers engage students in learning within and across the disciplines and help students understand how the subjects they study can be used to explore important issues in their lives and the world around them.

VII. Multiple Paths to Knowledge: Accomplished teachers provide students with multiple paths needed to learn the central concepts in each school subject, explore important themes and topics that cut across subject areas, and build overall knowledge and understanding.

VIII. Assessment: Accomplished teachers understand the strengths and weaknesses of different assessment methods, base their instruction on ongoing assessment, and encourage students to monitor their own learning.

IX. Family Involvement: Accomplished teachers initiate positive, interactive relationships with families as they participate in the education of their children.

X. Reflection: Accomplished teachers regularly analyze, evaluate, reflect on, and strengthen the effectiveness and quality of their practice.

XI. Contributions to the Profession: Accomplished teachers work with colleagues to improve schools and to advance knowledge and practice in their field.

Early Adolescence/Generalist, Second Edition

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards has organized the standards for accomplished Early Adolescence/Generalist teachers into the following 12 standards. The standards have been ordered to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They each describe an important facet of accomplished teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of accomplished practice. These standards serve as the basis for National Board Certification in this field.

I. Knowledge of Young Adolescents: Accomplished generalists draw on their knowledge of early adolescent development and their relationships with students to understand and foster their students’ knowledge, skills, interests, aspirations, and values.

II. Knowledge of Subject Matter: Accomplished generalists draw on their knowledge of subject matter to establish goals and to facilitate student learning within and across the disciplines of the middle-grades curriculum.

III. Instructional Resources: Accomplished generalists select, adapt, create, and use rich and varied resources.

IV. Learning Environment: Accomplished generalists establish a caring, stimulating, inclusive, and safe community for learning where students take intellectual risks and work independently and collaboratively.

V. Meaningful Learning: Accomplished generalists require students to confront, explore, and understand important and challenging concepts, topics, and issues and to improve skills in purposeful ways.

VI. Respect for Diversity: Accomplished generalists model and promote behavior appropriate in a diverse society by showing respect for and valuing all members of their learning communities and by expecting students to treat one another fairly and with dignity.

VII. Multiple Paths to Knowledge: Accomplished generalists use a variety of approaches to help students build knowledge and strengthen understanding.

VIII. Social Development: Accomplished generalists foster students’ self-awareness, character, civic responsibility, and respect for diverse individuals and groups.

IX. Assessment: Accomplished generalists employ a variety of assessment methods to obtain useful information about student learning and development, to inform instructional strategies, and to assist students in reflecting on their own progress.

X. Reflective Practice: Accomplished generalists regularly analyze, evaluate, and strengthen the effectiveness and quality of their practice.

XI. Family Partnerships: Accomplished generalists work with families to achieve common goals for the education of their children.

XII. Collaboration with Colleagues: Accomplished generalists work with colleagues to improve schools and to advance knowledge and practice in their field.

Early and Middle Childhood/Art

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards has developed the following nine standards of accomplished practice for Early and Middle Childhood/Art teachers. The standards have been ordered as they have to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They each describe an important facet of accomplished teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of teaching. The standards serve as the basis for the National Board Certification in this field.

I. Goals of Art Education: Accomplished art teachers know, understand, and implement ambitious goals of art education for themselves and their students.

II. Knowledge of Students as Learners: Accomplished art teachers demonstrate an understanding of the development of students in relationship to their art learning.

III. Equity and Diversity: Accomplished art teachers are committed to the celebration of diversity, practice equity and fairness, and use the multicultural content of art to promote opportunities to learn tolerance and acceptance of others.

IV. Content of Art: Accomplished art teachers demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the essential knowledge, concepts, skills, and processes that compose the content of art.

V. Curriculum and Instruction: Accomplished art teachers use their knowledge of art and students to organize, design, deliver, and evaluate curriculum and instruction to help students make, study, and respond to works of art.

VI. Instructional Resources and Technology: Accomplished art teachers create, select, and adapt a variety of resources, materials, and technologies that support students as they learn in and through the visual arts.

VII. Learning Environments: Accomplished art teachers establish environments where individuals, art content, and inquiry are held in high regard and where students can actively learn and create.

VIII. Collaboration with Families, Schools, and Communities: Accomplished art teachers work with colleagues, families, and community groups to achieve common goals for the education of students, to improve schools, and to advance the knowledge and practice of art education.

IX. Assessment, Evaluation, and Reflection on Teaching and Learning: Accomplished art teachers understand the design, principles, and purposes of assessment; they regularly monitor, analyze, and evaluate student progress, their own teaching, and their programs.

Early Adolescence through Young Adulthood/Art, Second Edition

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards has developed the following ten standards of accomplished practice for Early Adolescence through Young Adulthood/Art teachers. The standards have been ordered as they have to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They each describe an important facet of accomplished teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of teaching. The standards serve as the basis for the National Board Certification in this field.

I. Goals of Art Education: Accomplished art teachers know, understand, and implement ambitious goals of art education for themselves and their students.

II. Knowledge of Students as Learners: Accomplished art teachers demonstrate an understanding of the development of students in relationship to their art learning.

III. Equity and Diversity: Accomplished art teachers are committed to the celebration of diversity, practice equity and fairness, and use the multicultural content of art to promote opportunities to learn to accept and value others.

IV. Content of Art: Accomplished art teachers demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the essential knowledge, concepts, skills, and processes that compose the content of art.

V. Curriculum and Instruction: Accomplished art teachers use their knowledge of art and students to organize, design, deliver, and evaluate curriculum and instruction to help students make, study, and respond to works of art.

VI. Assessment, Evaluation, and Reflection on Student Learning: Accomplished art teachers understand the design, principles, and purposes of assessment; they regularly monitor, analyze, and evaluate student progress to inform their own practice.

VII. Instructional Resources and Technology: Accomplished art teachers create, select, and adapt a variety of resources, materials, and technologies that support students as they learn in and through the visual arts.

VIII. Learning Environments: Accomplished art teachers establish environments where individuals, art content, and inquiry are held in high regard and where students can actively learn and create.

IX. Collaboration with Colleagues, Schools, Families, and Communities: Accomplished art teachers work with colleagues, schools, families, and community groups to achieve common goals for the education of students; to improve schools; and to advance the knowledge, practice, and support of art education.

X. Reflective Practice: Accomplished art teachers constantly analyze, evaluate, and strengthen their practice and programs in order to improve the quality of student learning.

Career and Technical Education

The requirements recommended by the Career and Technical Education Standards Committee for National Board Certi•cation are organized into the following 13 standard statements. The standards have priorities. They are each important facets of the art and science of teaching, which often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of accomplished practice.

Creating a Productive Learning Environment

I. Knowledge of Students: Accomplished career and technical educators are dedicated to advancing the learning and well-being of all students. They personalize their instruction and apply knowledge of human development to best understand and meet their students’ needs.

II. Knowledge of Subject Matter: Accomplished career and technical educators command a core body of knowledge about the world of work in general and the skills and processes that cut across industries, industry specific knowledge, and a base of general academic knowledge. They draw on this knowledge to establish curricular goals, design instruction, facilitate student learning, and assess student progress.

III. Learning Environment: Accomplished career and technical educators efficiently manage their classrooms and create an environment that fosters democratic values, risk taking, and a love of learning. In this environment, students develop knowledge, skills, and confidence through contextualized learning activities, independent and collaborative laboratory work, and simulated workplace experiences.

IV. Diversity: Accomplished career and technical educators create an environment where equal treatment, fairness, and respect for diversity are modeled, taught, and practiced by all. They take steps to ensure quality career and technical learning opportunities for all students.

Advancing Student Learning

V. Advancing Knowledge of Career and Technical Subject Matter: Accomplished career and technical educators foster experiential, conceptual, and performance-based student learning of vocational subject matter and create important, engaging activities for students that draw upon an extensive repertoire of methods, strategies, and resources. Their practice is also marked by their ability to integrate vocational and academic disciplines productively.

VI. Assessment: Accomplished career and technical educators utilize a variety of assessment methods to obtain useful information about student learningand development, to assist students in reflecting on their own progress, and to refine their teaching.

Helping Students Transition to Work and Adult Roles

VII. Workplace Readiness: Accomplished career and technical educators develop student career decision-making and employability skills by creating opportunities for students to gain understanding of workplace cultures and expectations.

VIII. Managing and Balancing Multiple Life Roles: Accomplished career and technical educators develop in students an understanding of the competing demands and responsibilities that are part of the world of work and guide students as they begin to balance those roles in their own lives.

IX. Social Development: Accomplished career and technical educators develop in students self-awareness, confidence, character, leadership, and sound personal, social, and civic values and ethics.

Improving Education through Professional Development and Outreach

X. Reflective Practice: Accomplished career and technical educators regularly analyze, evaluate, and strengthen the effectiveness and quality of their practice through lifelong learning.

XI. Collaborative Partnerships: Accomplished career and technical educators work with colleagues, the community, business and industry, and postsecondary institutions to extend and enrich the learning opportunities available to students and to ease school-to-work transitions.

XII. Contributions to the Education Profession: Accomplished career and technical educators work with colleagues and the larger educational community both to improve schools and to advance knowledge and practice in their field.

XIII. Family and Community Partnerships: Accomplished career and technical educators work with families and communities to achieve common goals for the education of all students.

English as a New Language

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards has organized the standards for accomplished English as a New Language teachers into the following 12 standards. The standards have been ordered as they have to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They each describe an important facet of accomplished teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of accomplished practice. These standards serve as the basis for National Board Certification in this field.

Preparing for Student Learning

I. Knowledge of Students: Accomplished teachers of linguistically and culturally diverse learners draw on their knowledge of human development as mediated by language and culture and their relationships with students to understand their students’ knowledge, skills, interests, aspirations, and values.

II. Knowledge of Language and Language Development: Accomplished teachers of linguistically and culturally diverse learners are models of language proficiency in the languages in which they are expected to teach. In addition, they draw on their knowledge of language and language development to understand the process by which students acquire both their primary and new languages, to develop instructional strategies that promote language development, and to modify the curriculum as necessary to accommodate the needs of new language learners.

III. Knowledge of Culture and Diversity: Accomplished teachers of linguistically and culturally diverse learners are knowledgeable about and sensitive to the dynamics of culture in general, and to their students’ cultures in particular, which enables them to understand their students and structure a successful academic experience for them.

IV. Knowledge of Subject Matter: Accomplished teachers of linguistically and culturally diverse learners draw on a comprehensive command of subject matter, of language(s) of instruction, and their relationship to each other to establish goals, design curricula and instruction, and facilitate student learning. They do so in a manner that builds on students’ linguistic and cultural diversity.

Advancing Student Learning

V. Meaningful Learning: Accomplished teachers of linguistically and culturally diverse learners use a variety of approaches that allow students to confront, explore, and understand important and challenging concepts, topics, and issues in meaningful ways.

VI. Multiple Paths to Knowledge: Accomplished teachers of linguistically and culturally diverse learners provide multiple paths to help students develop language proficiency, learn the central concepts in each pertinent discipline, and build knowledge and strengthen understanding of the disciplines. They effectively use the language(s) of instruction to enhance subject-matter learning.

VII. Instructional Resources: Accomplished teachers of linguistically and culturally diverse learners select, adapt, create, and use rich and varied resources.

VIII. Learning Environment: Accomplished teachers of linguistically and culturally diverse learners establish a caring, inclusive, safe, and linguistically and culturally rich community of learning where students take intellectual risks and work both independently and collaboratively.

IX. Assessment: Accomplished teachers of linguistically and culturally diverse learners employ a variety of assessment methods to obtain useful information about student learning and development and to assist students in reflecting on their own progress.

Supporting Student Learning

X. Reflective Practice: Accomplished teachers of linguistically and culturally diverse learners regularly analyze, evaluate, and strengthen the effectiveness and quality of their practice.

XI. Linkages with Families: Accomplished teachers of linguistically and culturally diverse learners create linkages with families that enhance the educational experience of their students.

XII. Professional Leadership: Accomplished teachers of linguistically and culturally diverse learners contribute to the growth and development of their colleagues, their school, and the advancement of knowledge in their field.

Early and Middle Childhood/Literacy: Reading–Language Arts

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards has organized the standards for accomplished Early and Middle Childhood/Literacy: Reading–Language Arts teachers into the following 15 standards. The standards have been ordered to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They each describe an important facet of accomplished teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of accomplished practice. These standards serve as the basis for National Board Certification in this field.

Preparing the Way for Student Learning

I. Knowledge of Learners: Accomplished Early and Middle Childhood/ Literacy: Reading–Language Arts teachers draw on their knowledge of learning and child development theories and their relationships with students to acquire knowledge of their students as intellectual, social, emotional, cultural, and literate beings. Teachers use this information to inform teaching and learning practices.

II. Knowledge of the Field of Literacy: Reading-Language Arts: Accomplished Early and Middle Childhood/ Literacy: Reading–Language Arts teachers know and understand current literature and theories about reading–language arts. They evaluate this knowledge and use it in their instructional practice.

III. Equity, Fairness, and Diversity: Accomplished Early and Middle Childhood/ Literacy: Reading–Language Arts teachers practice equity and fairness; they seek and capitalize on diversity and diverse perspectives. They encourage all students to know, value, and respect themselves and others in the classroom, school, and larger community.

IV. Learning Environment: Accomplished Early and Middle Childhood/ Literacy: Reading–Language Arts teachers establish with their students a caring, supportive, inclusive, challenging, democratic, and safe learning community in which individuals take intellectual, social, and emotional risks and work both independently and collaboratively.

V. Instructional Resources: Accomplished Early and Middle Childhood/ Literacy: Reading–Language Arts teachers select, adapt, and create a rich and varied collection of instructional resources; regularly involve students in the process of creating and selecting such resources; and engage students, teachers, parents, and other adults from the community to enrich instruction.

VI. Instructional Decision Making: Accomplished Early and Middle Childhood/ Literacy: Reading–Language Arts teachers set informed and purposeful goals for students, develop meaningful learning opportunities, and interact effectively with students while extending to them increasing responsibility for their own learning.

VII. Assessment: Accomplished Early and Middle Childhood/ Literacy: Reading–Language Arts teachers use a range of formal and informal assessment strategies to shape instructional decisions, monitor student progress, encourage student self-assessment, and gather information to report to various audiences.

Advancing Student Learning

VIII. Integration: Accomplished Early and Middle Childhood/ Literacy: Reading–Language Arts teachers understand the reciprocal nature of the literacy processes of reading, writing, listening, speaking, and viewing, and they provide developmentally appropriate learning activi-ties that integrate among the language arts and across the curriculum.

IX. Reading: Accomplished Early and Middle Childhood/ Literacy: Reading–Language Arts teachers use their knowledge of reading processes, language development, texts, and ongoing assessment to advance literacy, develop strategic readers, promote an appreciation of reading as vital to lifelong learning, and create effective instruction so that readers can negotiate, inquire about, and construct meaning across the curriculum.

X. Writing: Accomplished Early and Middle Childhood/ Literacy: Reading–Language Arts teachers use their knowledge of writing processes, language development, writing development, and ongoing assessment to provide instruc-tion in the components of writing, assist students in constructing meaning in their written work, and provide genuine opportunities for students to write for a variety of purposes and audiences.

XI. Listening and Speaking: Accomplished Early and Middle Childhood/ Literacy: Reading–Language Arts teachers know, value, and teach oral language development and listening and speaking skills as essential components of literacy, and they provide opportunities for students to listen and speak for a variety of purposes and audiences.

XII. Viewing: Accomplished Early and Middle Childhood/ Literacy: Reading–Language Arts teachers know, value, and teach viewing as an essential component of literacy. They use a wide variety of print and nonprint resources to develop students’ viewing and visual-representation skills.

Supporting Student Learning

XIII. Collaboration with Families and Communities: Accomplished Early and Middle Childhood/ Literacy: Reading–Language Arts teachers develop positive and mutually supportive relationships with family and community members to achieve common goals for the literacy education of students.

XIV. Teacher as Learner: Accomplished Early and Middle Childhood/ Literacy: Reading–Language Arts teachers constantly seek to improve their knowledge and practice through a continuing process of professional reading, writing, dialogue, inquiry, and reflection.

XV. Professional Responsibility: Accomplished Early and Middle Childhood/ Literacy: Reading–Language Arts teachers actively contribute to the improvement of teaching, learning, and the advancement of knowledge and professional practice.

Early Adolescence/English Language Arts, Second Edition

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards has organized the standards for accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers into the following 16 standards. The standards have been ordered to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They each describe an important facet of accomplished teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of accomplished practice. These standards serve as the basis for National Board Certification in this field.

Preparing the Way for Productive Student Learning

I. Knowledge of Students: Accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers systematically acquire specific knowledge of their students as individuals and use that knowledge to help develop students’ literacy.

II. Knowledge of the Field: Accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers know the field of English language arts and how to teach it to their students.

III. Engagement: Accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers engage students in language arts learning and elicit a concerted academic effort from each of their students.

IV. Learning Environment: Accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers create a caring and challenging environment in which all students actively learn.

V. Equity, Fairness, and Diversity: Accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers are committed to the celebration of diversity, practice equity and fairness, and use a variety of texts to promote opportunities to learn acceptance and appreciation of others.

VI. Instructional Resources: Accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers select, adapt, and use instructional resources to develop student literacy and further curriculum goals.

VII. Instructional Decision Making: Accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers set attainable and worthwhile learning goals for students and develop meaningful learning opportunities, while extending to students an increasing measure of control over setting goals and choosing how those goals are pursued.

Advancing Student Learning in the Classroom

VIII. Reading: Accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers promote reading development by ensuring that their students read a wide variety of texts and develop strategies for comprehending, interpreting, evaluating, and appreciating those texts.

IX. Writing: Accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers provide instruction in the skills, processes, and knowledge needed for writing to ensure that their students write effectively across many genres and for a variety of purposes and audiences.

X. Listening, Speaking, and Viewing: Accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers develop students’ skills in listening, speaking, and viewing in many ways and for many purposes.

XI. Language Study: Accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers teach students to gain proficiency in language use and strengthen student sensitivity to appropriate uses of language.

XII. Integrated Instruction: Accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers integrate learning and learning activities within the English language arts classroom and across the disciplines.

XIII. Assessment: Accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers use a range of formal and informal assessment methods to monitor and evaluate student progress, encourage student self-assessment, plan instruction, and report to various audiences.

Supporting Student Learning through Long-Range Initiatives

XIV. Self-Reflection: Accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers constantly analyze and strengthen the effectiveness and quality of their teaching.

XV. Professional Community: Accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers contribute to the improvement of instructional programs, advancement of knowledge, and practice of colleagues.

XVI. Family Outreach: Accomplished Early Adolescence/English Language Arts teachers work with families to serve the best interests of their children.

Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts

The requirements for the Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts certi€cate are organized into the following €fteen standards. These standards have been ordered to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. Each standard describes an important facet of the art and science of teaching English language arts to adolescents and young adults. The actions described regularly occur in conjunction with one another given the seamless quality of accomplished practice.

Preparing the Way for Productive Student Learning

I. Knowledge of Students: Accomplished Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts teachers systematically acquire knowledge of their students as individual language learners.

II. Knowledge of English Language Arts: Accomplished Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts teachers know their €eld and draw upon this knowledge to set attainable and worthwhile learning goals for students.

III. Engagement: Accomplished Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts teachers actively involve each of their students in language learning.

IV. Fairness: Accomplished Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts teachers demonstrate through their practices toward all students their commitment to the principles of equity, strength through diversity, and fairness.

V. Learning Environment: Accomplished Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts teachers create an inclusive, caring and challenging classroom environment in which students actively learn.

VI. Instructional Resources: Accomplished Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts teachers select, adapt and create curricular resources that support active student exploration of language processes and a wide range of texts.

Advancing Student Learning in the Classroom

VII. Integrated Instruction: Accomplished Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts teachers frequently integrate reading, writing, speaking, listening and viewing opportunities in English studies and across the other disciplines.

VIII. Reading: Accomplished Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts teachers engage their students in reading and responding to literature, as well as interpreting and thinking deeply about literature and other sources.

IX. Writing: Accomplished Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts teachers immerse their students in the art of writing for a variety of purposes.

X. Discourse: Accomplished Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts teachers foster thoughtful classroom discourse that provides opportunities for students to listen and speak in many ways and for many purposes.

XI. Language Study: Accomplished Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts teachers strengthen student sensitivity to and pro€ciency in the appropriate uses of language.

XII. Assessment: Accomplished Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts teachers use a range of formal and informal assessment methods to monitor student progress, encourage student self-assessment, plan instruction and report to various audiences.

Supporting Student Learning through Long-Range Initiatives.

XIII. Self-Re�ection: Accomplished Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts teachers constantly analyze and strengthen the effectiveness and quality of their teaching.

XIV. Professional Community: Accomplished Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts teachers contribute to the improvement of instructional programs, advancement of knowledge, and practice of colleagues in the €eld.

XV. Family Outreach: Accomplished Adolescence and Young Adulthood/English Language Arts teachers work with families to serve the best interests of their children.

Exceptional Needs

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards has organized the standards for accomplished teachers of students with exceptional needs into the following 14 standards. The standards have been ordered to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They each describe an important facet of accomplished teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of accomplished practice. These standards serve as the basis for National Board Certification in this field.

Preparing for Student Learning

I. Knowledge of Students: Accomplished teachers of students with exceptional needs consistently use their knowledge of human development and learning and their skills as careful observers of students to understand students’ knowledge, aptitudes, skills, interests, aspirations, and values.

II. Knowledge of Special Education: Accomplished teachers of students with exceptional needs draw on their knowledge of the philosophical, historical, and legal foundations of special education and their knowledge of effective special education practice to organize and design instruction. In addition, they draw on their specialized knowledge of specific disabilities to set meaningful goals for their students.

III. Communications: Accomplished teachers of students with exceptional needs know the importance of communications in learning. They know how to use communication skills to help students access, comprehend, and apply information; to help them acquire knowledge; and to enable them to develop and maintain interpersonal relationships.

IV. Diversity: Accomplished teachers of students with exceptional needs create an environment in which equal treatment, fairness, and respect for diversity are modeled, taught, and practiced by all, and they take steps to ensure access to quality learning opportunities for all students.

V. Knowledge of Subject Matter: Accomplished teachers of students with exceptional needs command a core body of knowledge in the disciplines and draw on that knowledge to establish curricular goals, design instruction, facilitate student learning, and assess student progress.

Advancing Student Learning

VI. Meaningful Learning: Accomplished teachers of students with exceptional needs work with students to explore in purposeful ways important and challenging concepts, topics, and issues to build competence and confidence.

VII. Multiple Paths to Knowledge: Accomplished teachers of students with exceptional needs use a variety of approaches to help students strengthen understanding and gain command of essential knowledge and skills.

VIII. Social Development: Accomplished teachers of students with exceptional needs cultivate a sense of efficacy and independence in their students as they develop students’ character, sense of civic and social responsibility, respect for diverse individuals and groups, and ability to work constructively and collaboratively with others.

Supporting Student Learning

IX. Assessment: Accomplished teachers of students with exceptional needs design and select a variety of assessment strategies to obtain useful and timely information about student learning and development and to help students reflect on their own progress.

X. Learning Environment: Accomplished teachers of students with exceptional needs establish a caring, stimulating, and safe community for learning in which democratic values are fostered and students assume responsibility for learning, show willingness to take intellectual risks, develop self-confidence, and learn to work not only independently but also collaboratively.

XI. Instructional Resources: Accomplished teachers of students with exceptional needs select, adapt, create, and use rich and varied resources, both human and material.

XII. Family Partnerships: Accomplished teachers of students with exceptional needs work collaboratively with parents, guardians, and other caregivers to understand their children and to achieve common educational goals.

Professional Development and Outreach

XIII. Reflective Practice: Accomplished teachers of students with exceptional needs regularly analyze, evaluate, and strengthen the quality of their practice.

XIV. Contributing to the Profession and to Education: Accomplished teachers of students with exceptional needs work independently and collaboratively with colleagues and others to improve schools and to advance knowledge, policy, and practice in their field.

Health Education

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards has developed the following 11 standards of accomplished practice for health education teachers. The standards have been ordered as they have to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They each describe an important facet of accomplished teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of teaching. The standards serve as the basis for National Board Certification in this field.

Preparing for Student Learning

I. Knowledge of Students: Accomplished health education teachers obtain a clear understanding of individual students, their family structures, and their backgrounds.

II. Knowledge of Subject Matter: Accomplished health education teachers have a deep understanding of the com-ponents of health and health content and their interrelationships.

III. Promoting Skills-Based Learning: Accomplished health education teachers, through their passion and effective communication, maintain and improve health-enhancing student behavior by delivering health content through skills-based learning.

IV. Curricular Choices: Accomplished health education teachers select, plan, adapt, and evaluate curriculum to ensure comprehensive health education.

Advancing Student Learning

V. Instructional Approaches: Accomplished health education teachers use an array of engaging instructional strategies to facilitate student learning.

VI. High Expectations for Students: Accomplished health education teachers expect excellence from all students and strive to maintain a setting conducive to optimal learning that empowers students to engage in health-promoting behaviors.

VII. Assessment: Accomplished health education teachers are knowledgeable about and are able to select, design, and implement assessment instruments to evaluate student learning and improve teaching.

VIII. Equity, Fairness, and Diversity: Accomplished health education teachers demonstrate equity and fairness and promote respect and appreciation of diversity.

Supporting Student Learning

IX. Partnerships with Colleagues, Families, and Community: Accomplished health education teachers work collaboratively with colleagues, families, and the community to enhance the overall health and learning of their students. They recognize that their responsibility to reinforce consistent, positive health messages extends beyond their own classrooms.

X. Advocacy for the Profession: Accomplished health education teachers promote the importance of health education and encourage others to do the same.

XI. Reflective Practice and Professional Growth: Accomplished health education teachers stay current in research and innovations in health education and actively contribute to the profession. They participate in reflective practices that foster creativity, stimulate personal growth, and enhance professionalism.

Library Media

The requirements for National Board Certification in the field of Library Media are organized into the following 10 standards. They standards have been ordered to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. Each standard describes an important facet of the art and science of teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of accomplished practice.

What Library Media Specialists Know

I. Knowledge of Learners: Accomplished library media specialists have knowledge of learning styles and of human growth and development.

II. Knowledge of Teaching and Learning: Accomplished library media specialists know the principles of teaching and learning that contribute to an active learning environment.

III. Knowledge of Library and Information Studies: Accomplished library media specialists know the principles of library and information studies needed to create effective, integrated library media programs.

What Library Media Specialists Do

IV. Integrating Instruction: Accomplished library media specialists integrate information literacy through collaboration, planning, implementation, and assessment of learning.

V. Leading Innovation through the Library Media Program: Accomplished library media specialists lead in providing equitable access to and effective use of technologies and innovations.

VI. Administering the Library Media Program: Accomplished library media specialists plan, develop, implement, manage, and evaluate library media programs to ensure that students and staff use ideas and information effectively.

How Library Media Specialists Grow as Professionals

VII. Reflective Practice: Accomplished library media specialists engage in reflective practice to increase their effectiveness.

VIII. Professional Growth: Accomplished library media specialists model a strong commitment to lifelong learning and to their profession.

IX. Ethics, Equity, and Diversity: Accomplished library media specialists uphold professional ethics and promote equity and diversity.

X. Leadership, Advocacy, and Community Partnerships: Accomplished library media specialists advocate for the library media program, involving the greater community.

Middle Childhood through Early Adolescence/Mathematics

The standards for National Board Certification in the field of Middle Childhood through Early Adolescence/Mathematics are organized around four large themes: commitment to all students; knowledge of students, mathematics, and teaching; the teaching of mathematics; and professional development and outreach. The standards are presented in an order designed to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. Each is important in its own right.

Commitment to All Students

I. Commitment to Equity and Access: Accomplished mathematics teachers value and acknowledge the individuality and worth of each student; they believe that all students can learn and should have access to the full mathematics curriculum; and they demonstrate these beliefs in their practice by systematically providing all students equitable and complete access to mathematics.

Knowledge of Students, Mathematics, and Teaching

II. Knowledge of Students: Accomplished mathematics teachers recognize that students are shaped by a variety of educational, social, and cultural backgrounds and experiences that influence learning. They draw on knowledge of how students learn and develop in order to understand students and to guide curricular and instructional decisions.

III. Knowledge of Mathematics: Accomplished mathematics teachers draw on their broad knowledge of mathematics to shape their teaching and set curricular goals. They understand significant connections among mathematical ideas and the application of those ideas not only within mathematics but also to other disciplines and the world outside of school.

IV. Knowledge of Teaching Practice: Accomplished mathematics teachers rely on their extensive pedagogical knowledge to make curricular decisions, select instructional strategies, develop instructional plans, and formulate assessment plans.

The Teaching of Mathematics

V. The Art of Teaching: Accomplished mathematics teachers create elegant and powerful approaches to instructional challenges. Their practice reflects a highly developed personal synthesis of their caring for students, their passion for teaching and mathematics, understanding of mathematical content, their ability to apply mathematics, and their rich knowledge of established and innovative educational practices.

VI. Learning Environment: Accomplished mathematics teachers create stimulating, caring, and inclusive environments. They develop communities of involved learners in which students accept responsibility for learning, take intellectual risks, develop confidence and self-esteem, work independently and collaboratively, and value mathematics.

VII. Using Mathematics: Accomplished mathematics teachers help students develop a positive disposition for mathematics and foster the development of all students' abilities to use mathematics as a way to understand the world around them. They focus instruction on developing students' mathematical power by providing opportunities for students to understand and apply mathematical concepts; investigate, explore, and discover structures and relationships; demonstrate flexibility and perseverance in solving problems; create and use mathematical models; formulate problems of their own; and justify and communicate their conclusions.

VIII. Technology and Instructional Resources: Accomplished mathematics teachers are knowledgeable about and, where available, use current technologies and other resources to promote student learning in mathematics. They select, adapt, and create engaging instructional materials and draw on human resources from the school and the community to enhance and extend students' understanding and use of mathematics.

IX. Assessment: Accomplished mathematics teachers integrate assessment into their instruction to promote the learning of all students. They design, select, and employ a range of formal and informal assessment tools to match their educational purposes. They help students develop self-assessment skills, encouraging them to reflect on their performance.

Professional Development and Outreach

X. Reflection and Growth: Accomplished mathematics teachers regularly reflect on teaching and learning. They keep abreast of changes in mathematics and in mathematical pedagogy, continually increasing their knowledge and improving their practice.

XI. Families and Communities: Accomplished mathematics teachers work to involve families in their children's education, help the community understand the role of mathematics and mathematics instruction in today's world, and, to the extent possible, involve the community in support of instruction.

XII. Professional Community: Accomplished mathematics teachers collaborate with peers and other education professionals to strengthen the school's program, promote program quality and continuity across grade levels, advance knowledge in the field of mathematics education, and improve practice within the field.

Adolescence and Young Adulthood/Mathematics, Second Edition

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards has developed the following 12 standards of accomplished practice for Adolescence and Young Adulthood/Mathematics teachers. The standards have been ordered as they have to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They each describe an important facet of accomplished teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of teaching. The standards serve as the basis for the National Board Certification in this field.

Commitment

I. Commitment to Students and Their Learning: Accomplished mathematics teachers ac-knowledge and value the individuality and worth of each student, believe that all students can learn and use significant mathematics, and demonstrate these beliefs in their practice.

II. Equity, Diversity, and Fairness: Accomplished mathematics teachers have high expectations for all students. They ensure equal access to the mathematics curriculum; model and promote behavior appropriate in a diverse society by showing respect and appreciation for all students; and teach students to treat one another fairly and with dignity.

Knowledge of Mathematics, Students, and Teaching

III. Knowledge of Mathematics: Accomplished mathematics teachers have a broad and deep knowledge of the concepts, principles, techniques, and reasoning methods of mathematics, and they use this knowledge to set curricular goals and shape their instruction and assessment. They understand significant connections among mathematical ideas and the applications of these ideas to problem solving in mathematics, in other disciplines, and in the world outside of school.

IV. Knowledge of Students: Accomplished mathematics teachers know and care about their students. They use their knowledge about adolescents and adolescent development, and their knowledge about how this development affects the learning of mathematics, to guide their curricular and instructional decisions. They understand the impact of home life, cultural background, individual learning differences, student attitudes and aspirations, and community expectations and values on student learning.

V. Knowledge of Teaching Practice: Accomplished mathematics teachers have an extensive base of pedagogical knowledge and use it to make curriculum decisions, design instructional strategies and assessment plans, and choose materials and resources for mathematics instruction.

The Teaching of Mathematics

VI. The Art of Teaching: Accomplished mathematics teachers stimulate and facilitate student learning by using a wide range of formats and procedures and by assuming a variety of roles to guide students’ learning of mathematics.

VII. Learning Environment: Accomplished mathematics teachers help students learn mathematics by creating environments in which students are active learners, show willingness to take intellectual risks, develop confidence and self-esteem, and value mathematics. This environment fosters students’ learning of mathematics.

VIII. Ways of Thinking Mathematically: Accomplished mathematics teachers develop students’ abilities to reason and think mathematically—to investigate and explore patterns, to discover structures and establish relationships, to formulate and solve problems, to justify and communicate their conclusions, and to question and extend those conclusions.

IX. Assessment: Accomplished mathematics teachers employ a range of formal and informal assessment methods that are ongoing and embedded to evaluate student learning in light of well-defined goals. They employ multiple methods of assessment—including teacher-designed and external assessments, where appropriate—to diagnose learning; plan instruction; and provide opportunities for students to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses in order to revise, support, and extend their individual performance.

Professional Development and Outreach

X. Reflection and Growth: Accomplished mathematics teachers regularly reflect on what they teach and how they teach. They keep abreast of changes and learn new content in mathematics and in mathematical pedagogy, continually seeking to improve their knowledge and practice.

XI. Families and Communities: Accomplished mathematics teachers support and promote the involvement of families in their children’s education. They help varied communities understand the role of mathematics and mathematics instruction in today’s world, and—to the extent possible—they involve these communities in the support of instruction.

XII. Contributing to the Professional Community: Accomplished mathematics teachers collaborate with peers and other education professionals to strengthen their school’s programs, advance knowledge, and contribute to improving practice within the field.

Music

The requirements for National Board Certification in the field of Music are organized into the following eight standards. The standards have been ordered as they are to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They are each an important facet of the art and science of teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of accomplished practice.

I. Knowledge of Students: Accomplished music teachers understand the cognitive, physical, and social development of students and know their musical background; they use this knowledge to foster productive relationships with students and to provide music instruction that meets their needs.

II. Knowledge of and Skills in Music: Accomplished music teachers consistently demonstrate outstanding performance and musicianship skills; comprehensive knowledge of music theory and history; and highly specialized knowledge in general, choral, or instrumental music as they provide students with high-quality, sequential instruction in music.

III. Planning and Implementing Assessment: Accomplished music teachers plan and implement assessments, use assessment data in planning subsequent instruction, and employ a variety of methods to evaluate and report student progress.

IV. Facilitating Music Learning: Accomplished music teachers employ materials, methods, and strategies that engage students’ interest and facilitate music learning. They have highly specialized knowledge in choral, instrumental, or general music as they provide students with high-quality, sequential instruction in music.

V. Learning Environments: Accomplished music teachers create and foster dynamic learning environments that are characterized by trust, risk taking, independence, collaboration, and high expectations for all students.

VI. Valuing Diversity: Accomplished music teachers value the diverse backgrounds, abilities, and perspectives of their students and provide a music curriculum that is inclusive of all students and rich in musical diversity.

VII. Collaboration: Accomplished music teachers understand and value the distinctive role of families, colleagues, the community, and others in the music education process and continually seek opportunities to build partnerships with them.

VIII. Reflection, Professional Growth, and Professional Contribution: Accomplished music teachers reflect on their teaching, students’ performances, and developments in their field to extend their knowledge steadily, improve their teaching, and refine their philosophy of music education; they contribute to the growth of their colleagues, their schools, and their field.

Physical Education

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards has developed the following 13 standards of accomplished practice for physical education teachers. The standards have been ordered as they have to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They each describe an important facet of accomplished teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of teaching. The standards serve as the basis for the National Board Certification in this field.

I. Knowledge of Students: Accomplished physical education teachers use their knowledge of students to make every student feel important. They communicate through a humane, sensitive approach that each child, regardless of ability, can succeed and will benefit from a physically active, healthy lifestyle.

II. Knowledge of Subject Matter: Accomplished physical education teachers have a deep and broad understanding of the content and principles of physical education, which enables them to devise sound and developmentally appropriate instructional activities.

III. Sound Teaching Practices: Accomplished physical education teachers possess a thorough comprehension of the fundamentals of physical education and a broad grasp of relevant principles and theories that give their teaching purpose and guide them as they carry out a flexible, yet effective, instructional program responsive to students’ needs and developmental levels.

IV. Student Engagement in Learning: Through their own passion for teaching and their personal example, accomplished physical education teachers inspire their students to learn and to participate in and appreciate physical education.

V. High Expectations for Learners: Accomplished physical education teachers tenaciously maintain a stimulating, productive setting that encourages participation, discovery, goal setting, and cooperation and that holds all students to the highest expectations.

VI. Learning Environment: Accomplished teachers of physical education create and sustain a welcoming, safe, and challenging environment in which students engage in and enjoy physical activity. They establish an orderly atmosphere with established protocols and expectations conducive to providing maximum learning for all students.

VII. Curricular Choices: Accomplished physical education teachers select, plan, and evaluate curriculum in a continuous process meant to ensure a sensible, properly structured, positive physical education program that meets students’ needs and results in student learning.

VIII. Assessment: Accomplished physical education teachers design assessment strategies appropriate to the curriculum and to the learner. They use assessment results to provide feedback to the learner, to report student progress, and to shape instruction.

IX. Equity, Fairness, and Diversity: Accomplished physical education teachers model and promote behavior appropriate in a diverse society by showing respect for and valuing all members of their communities and by having high expectations that their students will treat one another fairly and with dignity.

X. Reflective Practice and Professional Growth: Accomplished physical education teachers participate in a wide range of reflective practices that foster their creativity, stimulate personal growth, contribute to content knowledge and classroom skill, and enhance professionalism.

XI. Promoting an Active Lifestyle: Accomplished physical education teachers recognize the multiple benefits of a physically active lifestyle and promote purposeful daily activities for all students that will encourage them to become lifelong adherents of physical activity.

XII. Collaboration with Colleagues: Accomplished physical education teachers do not work in isolation but function as members of a large learning community. Recognizing that their responsibilities extend beyond their own classrooms, they contribute purposefully to enhancing instructional programs and improving the professional culture of their field.

XIII. Family and Community Partnerships: Accomplished physical education teachers create advocates for physical education by providing opportunities for family involvement and the involvement of the broader community in the physical education program.

School Counseling

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards has developed the following 11 standards of accomplished practice for school counselors. Standard I describes the school counseling program and presents a lens through which to view the knowledge and application expressed in the other standards. The standards have been ordered as they have to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They each describe an important facet of accomplished school counseling; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of school counseling. The standards serve as the basis for National Board Certification in this field.

I. School Counseling Program: Accomplished school counselors develop and deliver a school counseling program that is comprehensive, demonstrates continuous improvement, and advances the mission of the school.

II. School Counseling and Student Competencies: Accomplished school counselors apply deep and broad understanding of academic, career, and personal/social student competencies.

III. Human Growth and Development: Accomplished school counselors apply comprehensive, in-depth knowledge of human growth and development to improve student learning and well-being.

IV. Counseling Theories and Techniques: Accomplished school counselors dem-onstrate a comprehensive understanding of established and emerging counseling theories. They possess a thorough knowledge of techniques and processes that form the foundation for effective school counseling with a diverse population.

V. Equity, Fairness, and Diversity: Accomplished school counselors model and promote behavior appropriate in a diverse and global society by showing respect for and valuing all members of the community. They demonstrate fairness, equity, and sensitivity to every student, and they advocate for equitable access to instructional programs and activities.

VI. School Climate: Accomplished school counselors work to establish and foster an emotionally, socially, and physically safe learning environment for students, staff, and families.

VII. Collaboration with Family and Community: Accomplished school counselors work collaboratively with families and community members to achieve common goals for the education of students, improvement of schools, and advancement of the larger community. They are knowledgeable of the community and community resources, and they utilize available resources to make appropriate referrals based on the needs of students.

VIII. Informational Resources and Technology: Accomplished school counselors are skilled in the selection and use of informational resources and technology and use them to facilitate the delivery of a comprehensive school counseling program that meets student needs.

IX. Student Assessment: Accomplished school counselors understand the principles and purposes of assessment, and the collection and use of data. They regularly monitor student progress and communicate the purpose, design, and results of assessments to various audiences.

X. Leadership, Advocacy, and Professional Identity: Accomplished school counselors work as leaders and advocates in the promotion of student learning and achievement. They adhere to ethical practices and engage in professional growth and development.

XI. Reflective Practice: Accomplished school counselors integrate their knowledge, skills, and life experiences to respond effectively to new or unexpected critical events and situations. They monitor and refine their work with continuous, in-depth reflection.

Early Adolescence/Science

The requirements for National Board Certification for EA/Science teaching are organized into thirteen standards summarized here. Each focuses on a central responsibility of teachers in this field that accomplished teachers discharge well. Taken together, these standards may appear especially demanding, but this is by design, not accident—the kind and quality of practice NBPTS seeks to encourage is not easily achieved. The standards have been organized to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They are each important facets of teaching that are densely interwoven and often occur simultaneously because accomplished teaching is a seamless activity with many disparate purposes served at any given moment.

Preparing the Way for Productive Student Learning

I. Understanding Students: Accomplished science teachers know how early adolescent learners grow and develop, actively come to know their students as individuals, and draw on this knowledge and their relationships with students to determine the students’ understanding of science as well as their individual learning backgrounds.

II. Knowledge of Science: Accomplished science teachers have a broad and current knowledge of science and science education, along with in-depth knowledge of one of the subfields of science, on which they draw to set appropriate learning goals with their students.

III. Instructional Resources: Accomplished science teachers select and adapt instructional resources, including technology, laboratory, and community resources, and create their own resources to support active student explorations of science.

Establishing a Favorable Context for Student Learning

IV. Engagement: Accomplished science teachers stimulate interest in science and technology and elicit their students’ sustained participation in learning activities.

V. Learning Environment: Accomplished science teachers create safe and supportive learning environments that foster high expectations for the success of all students and in which students experience the values inherent in the practice of science.

VI. Equitable Participation: Accomplished science teachers take steps to ensure that all students, including those from groups that historically have not been encouraged to enter the world of science, participate in the study of science.

Advancing Student Learning

VII. Science Inquiry: Accomplished science teachers involve students in inquiries that challenge them and help them construct an understanding of nature and technology.

VIII. Fundamental Understandings: Accomplished science teachers use a variety of instructional strategies to expand students’ understanding of the major ideas of science.

IX. Contexts of Science: Accomplished science teachers create opportunities for students to examine a variety of contexts of science, including its history, reciprocal relationship with technology, ties to mathematics, and impact on society, so students make connections across the disciplines of science and into other subject areas.

Supporting Teaching and Student Learning

X. Assessment: Accomplished science teachers assess student learning through a variety of means that align with stated learning goals.

XI. Family and Community Outreach: Accomplished science teachers proactively work with families and communities to serve the best interests of each student.

XII. Contributing to the Profession: Accomplished science teachers contribute to the quality of their colleagues’ practice, the instructional program of the school, and the work of the larger professional community.

XIII. Reflective Practice: Accomplished science teachers constantly analyze, evaluate, and strengthen their practice in order to improve the quality of their students’ learning experiences.

Adolescence and Young Adulthood/Science

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards has developed the following 13 standards of accomplished practice for Adolescence and Young Adulthood/Science teachers. The standards have been ordered as they have to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They each describe an important facet of accomplished teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of teaching. The standards serve as the basis for the National Board Certification in this field.

Preparing the Way for Productive Student Learning

I. Understanding Students: Accomplished science teachers know how students learn, actively come to know their students as individuals, and determine students’ understandings of science as well as their individual learning backgrounds.

II. Knowledge of Science: Accomplished science teachers have a broad and current knowledge of science and science education, along with in-depth knowledge of one of the subfields of science, which they use to set important appropriate learning goals.

III. Instructional Resources: Accomplished science teachers select and adapt instructional resources, including technology and laboratory and community resources, and create their own to support active student explorations of science.

Establishing a Favorable Context for Student Learning

IV. Engagement: Accomplished science teachers stimulate interest in science and technology and elicit all their students’ sustained participation in learning activities.

V. Learning Environment: Accomplished science teachers create safe and supportive learning environments that foster high expectations for the success of all students and in which students experience the values inherent in the practice of science.

VI. Equitable Participation: Accomplished science teachers take steps to ensure that all students, including those from groups which have historically not been encouraged to enter the world of science, participate in the study of science.

Advancing Student Learning

VII. Science Inquiry: Accomplished science teachers develop in students the mental operations, habits of mind, and attitudes that characterize the process of scientific inquiry.

VIII. Conceptual Understandings: Accomplished science teachers use a variety of instructional strategies to expand students’ understandings of the major ideas of science.

IX. Contexts of Science: Accomplished science teachers create opportunities for students to examine the human contexts of science, including its history, reciprocal relationship with technology, ties to mathematics, and impacts on society so that students make connections across the disciplines of science and into other subject areas.

Supporting Teaching and Student Learning

X. Assessment: Accomplished science teachers assess student learning through a variety of means that align with stated learning goals.

XI. Family and Community Outreach: Accomplished science teachers proactively work with families and communities to serve the best interests of each student.

XII. Collegiality and Leadership: Accomplished science teachers contribute to the quality of the practice of their colleagues, to the instructional program of the school, and to the work of the larger professional community.

XIII. Reflection: Accomplished science teachers constantly analyze, evaluate, and strengthen their practice in order to improve the quality of their students’ learning experiences.

Social Studies–History

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards has developed the following 12 standards of accomplished practice for social studies–history teachers. The standards have been ordered as they have to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They each describe an important facet of accomplished teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of teaching. The standards serve as the basis for the National Board Certification in this field.

Preparing for Student Learning

I. Knowledge of Students: Accomplished teachers understand the cognitive, physical, and social development of young people and the diversity among them, observe them insightfully, and use this information to guide their practice and to form constructive relationships with the students they teach.

II. Valuing Diversity: Accomplished teachers understand that each student brings diverse perspectives to any experience. These teachers encourage all students to know and value themselves and others.

III. Knowledge of Subject Matter: Accomplished teachers draw on a broad knowledge of social studies and history to establish important and challenging instructional goals that engage and empower students, and they plan an integrated curriculum based on the major concepts, themes, principles, relationships, and processes illuminated by history and social studies. Advancing Student Learning

IV. Advancing Disciplinary Knowledge and Understanding: Accomplished teachers have a repertoire of strategies and techniques that engage student interest in and advance student understanding of United States History, World History, Economics, Political Science, and Geography.

V. Promoting Social Understanding: Accomplished teachers promote in their students an understanding of how the social aspects of the human condition have evolved over time, the variations in societies that occur in different physical environments and cultural settings, and the emerging trends that seem likely to shape the future.

VI. Developing Civic Competence: Accomplished teachers develop in their students the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to be responsible citizens of a constitutional democracy.

Supporting Student Learning

VII. Instructional Resources: Accomplished teachers select, adapt, and create rich and varied resources for social studies and history and use them productively.
VIII. Learning Environments: Accomplished teachers create and foster for students dynamic learning environments characterized by trust, equity, risk taking, independence, and collaboration.

IX. Assessment: Accomplished teachers employ a variety of assessment methods to obtain useful information about student learning and development and assist students in reflecting on their own progress.

X. Reflection: Accomplished teachers reflect on their practice, on students’ performance, and on developments in their field to steadily extend their knowledge, improve their teaching, and refine their philosophy of education.

XI. Family Partnerships: Accomplished teachers understand and value the distinctive role of parents and guardians, and they continually seek opportunities to build strong partnerships with them.

XII. Professional Contributions: Accomplished teachers regularly work with others to foster the growth and development of their colleagues, their school, and their field.

World Languages Other than English

The requirements for National Board Certification in the field of World Languages Other than English are organized into the following 14 standards. The standards have been ordered as they are to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They are each an important facet of the art and science of teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of accomplished practice.

Preparing for Student Learning

I. Knowledge of Students: Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English draw on their understanding of child and adolescent development, value their students as individuals, and actively acquire knowledge of their students to foster their students’ competencies and interests as individual language learners.

II. Fairness: Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English demonstrate through their practices toward all students their commitment to the principles of equity, strength through diversity, and fairness. Teachers welcome diverse learners who represent our multiracial, multilingual, and multiethnic society, and they set the highest goals for each student.

III. Knowledge of Language: Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English have the ability to function with a high degree of proficiency in the languages they teach, know how the languages work, and draw on this knowledge to set attainable and worthwhile learning goals for their students.

IV. Knowledge of Culture: As an integral part of effective instruction in world languages other than English, accomplished teachers know and understand the target cultures and target languages and know how these are intimately linked with one another.

V. Knowledge of Language Acquisition: Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English are familiar with how students acquire competence in another language, understand varied methodologies and approaches used in the teaching and learning of languages, and draw on this knowledge to design instructional strategies appropriate to their instructional goals.

Advancing Student Learning

VI. Multiple Paths to Learning: Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English actively and effectively engage their students in language learning and cultural studies; they use a variety of teaching strategies to help develop students’ proficiency, increase their knowledge, strengthen their understanding, and foster their critical and creative thinking.

VII. Articulation of Curriculum and Instruction: Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English work to ensure that the experiences students have from one level to the next are sequential, long-range, and continuous, with the goal that over a period of years students will move from simple to sophisticated use of languages.

VIII. Learning Environment: Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English create an inclusive, caring, challenging, and stimulating classroom environment in which meaningful communication in the target languages occurs and in which students learn actively.

IX. Instructional Resources: Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English select, adapt, create, and use appropriate resources to help meet the instructional and linguistic needs of all their students and foster critical and creative thinking among them.

X. Assessment: Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English employ a variety of assessment strategies appropriate to the curriculum and to the learner and use assessment results to monitor student learning, to assist students in reflecting on their own progress, to report student progress, and to shape instruction.

Supporting Student Learning

XI. Reflection as Professional Growth: Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English continually analyze and evaluate the quality of their teaching in order to strengthen its effectiveness and enhance student learning.

XII. Schools, Families, and Communities: Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English work with colleagues in other disciplines, with families, with members of the school community, and with the community at large to serve the best interests of students.

XIII. Professional Community: Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English contribute to the improvement of instructional programs, to the advancement of knowledge, and to the practice of colleagues in language instruction.

XIV. Advocacy for Education in World Languages Other than English: Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English advocate both within and beyond the school for the inclusion of all students in long-range, sequential programs that also offer opportunities to study multiple languages.